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García Sánchez II of Pamplona and Jimena Fernández
García Sánchez II of Pamplona. (sometimes García II, III, IV or V ). The Trembling. King of P:amplona. Count of Aragon. [ Chart A11].
Born about 964; son of SANCHO II of Navarre and Urraca Fernandez. (S1).
García Sánchez II was called the Trembling, the Tremulous, or the Trembler (in Spanish, el Temblón) by his contemporaries. (S1).
He was King of Pamplona from 994 to his death, presumably by 1004.
Preceded by: Sancho II
Succeeded by: Sancho III
He married Jimena Fernández by August 981. (S1).
Throughout his reign, his foreign policy seems to have been closely linked to that of Castile. His mother was an aunt of count Sancho García of Castile, and also of the powerful count of Saldaña, García Gómez of Carrión, and she appears to have played a role in forming a bridge between the kingdom and county. (S1).
He joined his cousin Sancho in attempting to break from the submission his father had offered to Córdoba, as a result of which he had to face Almanzor. (S1).
In 996 he was forced to seek peace in Córdoba. In 997 during an expedition into the land of Calatayud, García killed the governor's brother. Almanzor took revenge by beheading 50 Christians. (S1).
At the Battle of Cervera in July 1000, he joined, along with count García Gómez of Saldaña, in a coalition headed by count Sancho García of Castile that was defeated by Almanzor (that count Sancho led the group is thought to reflect García's decline). (S1).
Domestically, he granted the rule in Aragon to his brother Gonzalo, under the tutelage of his mother Urraca. (S1).
A tradition reports that he freed all of the Muslim captives being held in the kingdom. (S1).
Tradition names him one of the Christian leaders at the 1002 Battle of Calatañazor, which resulted in the death of Almanzor and the consequent crisis in the Caliphate of Córdoba. (S1).
Sancho II died sometime between 1000 and 1004. There is no definite contemporary record of him after 1000. Hiis cousin Sancho Ramírez of Viguera may have been ruling in Pamplona in 1002. García was certainly dead by 1004, when his son Sancho Garcés III first appears as king. (S1).
Daughter of Fernando Bermúdez, count of Cea by Elvira Díaz (an aunt of count García Gómez of Saldaña).
CHILDREN of García Sánchez II of Pamplona and Jimena Fernández:
- Sancho III of Navarre. Sancho III Garcés (c. 992 – 18 October 1035), called the Great (Spanish: el Mayor, Basque: Nagusia), succeeded as a minor to the Kingdom of Navarre in 1004, and through conquest and political maneuvering increased his power, until at the time of his death in 1035 he controlled the majority of Christian Iberia, bearing the title of rex Hispaniarum. Having gone further than any of his predecessors in uniting the divided kingdoms of Iberia, his life's work was undone when he divided his domains shortly before his death to provide for each of his sons. He married Muniadona Mayor.
- Urraca, later the second wife of Alfonso V of León. (S1).
- [S1]. García Sánchez II of Pamplona. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. QUOTES as sources:
- Martín Duque, Ángel. "Don García Sánchez III «el de Nájera»: Biographía de un Reinado" in García Sánchez III "el de Nájera" un rey y un reino en la Europa del siglo XI : XV Semana de Estudios Medievales, Nájera, Tricio y San Millán de la Cogolla del 2 al 6 de agosto de 2004 José Ignacio de la Iglesia Duarte, ed. 2005, pp. 17–38
- Pérez de Urbel, Justo. "Los Primeros Siglos de la Reconquista, (Años 711-1038)" in España Christiana: Comienzo de la Reconquista (711-1038). Historia de España [dirigida por Don Ramón Menéndez Pidal], vol. 6. Espasa Calpe: Madrid, 1964.