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García Sánchez I of Pamplona and Andregoto Galíndez
García Sánchez I of Pamplona. [Chart A11].
Born (about 919-S2)(about 922-S2); son of SANCHO I and Toda Aznárez.
The Anales de Pamplona indicates that he was aged 12 at the time he became king. This is usually taken to reflect a birth in 919 and succession on the death of his uncle in 931. However, the Initium regnum Pampilonam says that at the time of his death in February 970 he had ruled for 35 years, apparently using his mother's 934 displacement as regent for the starting date. If this is the date used by the Anales it would instead place his birth about 922. Antonio Ubieto Arteta, "Los reyes pamploneses entre 905 y 970" (S2).
King of Pamplona from 931 until his death, 22 February 970. (S2).
He was the son of King Sancho I and Toda Aznárez and had a sister, Urraca Sánchez of Pamplona. Being just six years old at the time of his father's death, his uncle Jimeno Gárces succeeded, and it was just in the last year of the latter's reign, in 930, that Garcia appears with the royal title, but this was probably just a courtesy. On Jimeno's death, it was his mother Toda who governed on behalf of the 12-year-old García. This regency ended in 934, when his first cousin Caliph Abd-ar-Rahman III intervened on his behalf, and García began to rule as king. (S2).
With the support of his energetic and diplomatic mother, García, like his father, engaged in a number of conflicts with the Moors. In particular, in 937, he allied himself with Ramiro II of León and Muhammad ibn Hashim, governor of Zaragoza, resulting in a military campaign by Abd-ar-Rahman III via Calatayud and Zaragoza into García'a lands. García married his first cousin, Andregota Galíndez, daughter and coheiress of Galindo Aznárez II, Count of Aragon, having one son and heir, Sancho. He had divorced her by 940, when he reached an agreement to marry the daughter of Sunyer, Count of Barcelona, but the forced submission of Sunyer to Abd-ar-Rahman included the abandonment of this plan. (S2).
García then married (2) Teresa, daughter of his ally Ramiro II. (S2).
Following the death of Ramiro II and his successor Ordoño III of León, the Pamplona kingdom threw support behind the deceased king's younger brother, Sancho I of León, who was García's nephew. When García's brother-in-law and ally Fernán González of Castile switched his support and installed his own son-in-law Ordoño IV of León in place of Sancho, Fernán's relationship with García became strained and the death of Fernán's wife, García's sister Sancha the next year led to a break. García directly intervened in León, capturing Fernán and restoring Sancho. Fernán was forced to make territorial concessions to García to gain his release, and their alliance wasn't fully restored until 954, when Fernán remarried, this time to García's daughter Urraca. (S2).
García was succeeded by his son Sancho II Garcés, nicknamed Abarca. His younger son Ramiro Garcés, the eldest by Teresa, was called "king" of lands centered at Viguera. By Teresa he also had son Jimeno (also called "king" in documents), who was a hostage in Córdoba. García had two daughters, Toda, who appears in a 991 document with brother Sancho, and Urraca who married successively Fernán González of Castile and William II Sánchez of Gascony. (S2).
García Sánchez I died on 22 February 970. (S2).
King of Pamplona 931–970
Preceded by: Jimeno Garcés
with Toda Aznárez (931–934)
Andregoto Galíndez. (literally Lady Goth, daughter of Galindo, from Basque title andre). [Chart A11].
Andregoto Galíndez was daughter of Count Galindo II Aznárez Count of Aragon from 922, being by his second wife, Sancha Garcés of Pamplona. She is frequently referred to as countess, and made heiress to her father, yet she was not the eldest daughter, and likewise Aragon had already been absorbed into the Kingdom of Pamplona by Sancho I, years before her marriage to that king's son, García Sánchez I. (S1).
Prior to 940, García divorced Andregoto, presumably due to consanguinity since the two shared a grandparent. They left a sole son, Sancho II of Pamplona, and García's two daughters may also have been hers: Toda, who is mentioned in 991 as sister of King Sancho, and Urraca, wife successively of Fernán González of Castile and William II Sánchez of Gascony. It has been suggested that Andregoto remarried and had further children, although the details have not been discovered. Endregota, wife of 11th century count Sancho Maceratiz, calls herself a descendant of Queen Andregoto, but Ubieto Arteta suggests that Endregota instead descended from the queen's sister Velasquita Galíndez. (S1).
CHILDREN of García Sánchez I of Pamplona and Andregoto Galíndez
- SANCHO II, of Pamplona. [Chart A11]. He married Urraca Fernandez.
- Urraca is commonly given as daughter by García's second wife. Gonzalo Martínez Díez in Sancho III el Mayor: rey de Pamplona, Rex Ibericus makes her daughter of Andregoto. Traditional chronology would require this to have been otherwise, as she is typically identified with Urraca, duchess of Gascony, who died in 1041. However, while still showing Urraca as daughter of Teresa, Jaime de Salazar y Acha shows her death to have been by 1008, concluding that the 1041 decedent was instead her daughter-in-law Urraca Sánchez, daughter of Sancho García of Castile and widow of Sancho VI William of Gascony. While this would thereby allow the Martínez Díez reconstruction, Urraca still married Fernán González between 961 and 964, more than two decades after Andregoto's divorce, so Teresa is still more likely to have been her mother. (S1).
- [S1]. Andregoto Galíndez. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andregoto_Gal%C3%ADndez. QUOTES as sources:
- Gonzalo Martínez Díez (2005). El condado de Castilla (711-1038): la historia frente a la leyenda. Marcial Pons Historia
- Gonzalo Martínez Díez (2007). Sancho el Mayor: Rey de Pamplona, Rex Ibericus. Marcial Pons Historia
- Salazar y Acha, Jaime de (2006). "Urraca, un nombre egregio en la onomástica altomedieval". En la España medieval, 1:29–48.
- Ubieto Arteta, Antonio (1952). "Doña Andregoto Galindez, reina de Pamplona y condesa de Aragón", Actas del Primer Congreso Internacional de Estudios Pirenáicos, Vol. 6, pp. 165-179.
- [S2]. García Sánchez I of Pamplona. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garc%C3%ADa_S%C3%A1nchez_I_of_Pamplona. QUOTES as sources:
- The Anales de Pamplona
- Initium regnum Pampilonam.
- Salas Merino, Vicente (2008). La Genealogía de Los Reyes de España [The Genealogy of the Kings of Spain] (in Spanish) (4th ed.). Madrid: Editorial Visión Libros. pp. 216–218. ISBN 978-84-9821-767-4.